Stem cells can be considered unspecialized cells that have the ability to self-renew or differentiate into specialized cell types such as neurons, liver and muscle cells. Pluripotent stem cell (PSCs), Embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs), can divide in culture for a long time. They can differentiate into any type of cell in the body and are capable of becoming other types.
Multipotent stem cells include adult stem cells, such as neural stem cell (NSCs), mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells (HSCs). Multipotent stem cells can only differentiate to the types of cells found in their tissue of origin. You can know more about stem cell marker antibody from Boster Bio. Multipotent stem cells can only differentiate to the cell types found in the tissue of origin.
For the identification of stem cells and differentiated cells, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry are common methods. High-quality antibodies are key to stem cell research's success and rapid development. A very limited number of cells in the body contain stem cells that have the ability to self-renew or maintain pluripotency.
One stem cell could be found in 100,000 blood cells. They may also look the same as any other cells in a tissue, with little or no morphological differences. These elusive cells can be identified by stem cell "markers," which are a set unique to stem cells. Many of these markers function as receptors and are often found on the cell's surface.
Pluripotent embryonic stem cell surfaces are home to Oct-4 and Stage-specific embryonic Antigens (SSEA), for example. Some stem cell types have distinguishing characteristics such as the absence of certain proteins or negative markers. These highly desired cells can be identified and investigated using well-researched antibodies.